Poetry In Different Cultures


Poetry In Different Cultures

Classical Greek and Roman Literature

In the beginning of pre-classic Greek literature are two major works of Homer they are the epic poems of the Iliad and the Odyssey. They both seem to have their origins in Greek oral poetry that were later employed into writing around 800 BC. Another poet of the pre-classical period was Hesiod. The two surviving works he has are Work and Days and Theogony.rnrnDuring the classical era of Greek poetry, Aristotle helped determine form and categories of poetry. During this time terms like lyrical poetry, philosophical dialectics, drama, comedy, and tragedy evolved. The two major lyrical poets were Sappho and Pindar. They are known for their homoerotic imagery and romantic poetry. Drama saw its beginnings in the classical era. Out of the many tragedies of the classical era, a limited collection of plays by three authors have survived: Aeschytus, Sophocles, and Euripides.rnrn The origins of tragedy and comedy are from a ritual in honor of the god of wine and revelry, and free spirit, Dionysus. Comedy though was filled with candid obscenity, abuse, and insult. The comedy play writer most known at this time was Aristophanes. rnrnDuring this great age of poetry emerged the great historians: Herodotus and Thucydides. The greatest prose created of the 4th century was in philosophy. With Greek philosophy emerged three great names: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.rnDuring the Hellenistic age Greek poetry flourished primarily in the 3rd century BC and the great library of Alexandria housed many great works of this time and preserved much form the past. The major poets of this time were Theocritus, Callimachus, and Apollonius of Rhodes. One of the most valuable contributions of this age was the translation of the Old Testament from the Hebrew to Greek, creating the Septuagint.rnrnAfter the 1st Punic War of Rome, began the Golden age of Roman Drama. The beginning of Greek drama in Rome and formal Latin literature and poetry flourished in this era. Romans came into contact with the Greek physical world, the Romans were in addition adapting Greek drama, Livius Andronicus also translated the Odyssey into Latin.rn rn Naevius was the first native Roman dramatist. He served in the 1st Puic War and wrote a Punic War. He also wrote many Roman themed plays and invented Roman historical play. He also wrote numerous comedies.rnrn Ennius fought in the second Punic War. When he was brought to Rome, he was a teacher and writer. He composed many poems called Saturae and an epic poem, the Anneles. He also wrote comedies but most notorious for his tragedies. rn Horace is a well renowned poet of Rome and was favored by emperor Augustus. He met another great poet and politician in Roman history, Cicero, in Athens. Cicero became one of Romeís greatest orators and prose stylists.rnrn rnThe Golden Age for Rome started broadly in the 1st century BC. The earliest known poet of this age is Lucretius who wrote On Nature of Things, a long philosophical poem. Later, was Catullus who ventured into early Greek lyric verse form into Latin. At the apex of this Golden Age, Virgil wrote the epic poem, Aeneid. Post-Austustan works that survived are those of Pliny the Elder and Pliny the Younger, which later inspired later generations during the Renaissance.rnrn

Classical Greek and Roman Literaturern

rnChinese Poetry heavily influenced Japanese poets. It was at the peak in the Tang dynasty that the Japanese culture clashed with Chinese culture. It was several hundred years for the Japanese to digest and cope with the foreign Chinese impact of Japanese society. As the two cultures slowly merged with each otherís literary traditions, Japanese poets began to develop the diversity of their native poetry.rnrnA new trend in the 19th century began where major forms of Japanese poetry have been tanka, haiku, and shi. In modern Japanese poetry the main forms are experimental poetry and poetry seeking to reviv

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